05 Feb Parts of Speech
Every word that we know and speak have been categorized into classes called Parts of Speech depending on their function in a sentence.
There are eight parts of speech:
Noun: All names are nouns. Names of people, places, animals, things, and even things we can’t see or touch or taste, but feel. For example, courage.
- The rose smells sweet.
- Rama and Hari are cousins.
- He is fond of music.
Adjective: Words that add something to the meaning of the noun or modify it are called adjectives. For example, the black dog, where ‘dog’ is the noun and the ‘black’ is add some information about what colour the dog is.
- There are twelve people in the class.
- Still waters run deep.
- He is taller than Ravi.
Pronoun: Words which are used to replace a noun are called pronouns. For example,
Suresh is absent, because he is busy.
In the aforementioned sentence, the word ‘he’ replaces the noun Suresh in the second clause of the sentence.
- He will not go to work today.
- I found the pen which I had lost.
- My mother does not believe in her anymore.
Similarly, pronouns can also replace other nouns apart from people, like places. For example,
- Kindly report at the airport in an hour.
- Kindly report there in an hour.
Verb: A word that shows some action or says something about the noun is called a verb. For example,
The lion is the king of the jungle.
- A cheetah runs faster than a deer.
- I have the book which you wanted to read.
- She died in an accident.
Note: There can be no sentence in English without a verb.
Adverb: Words that add something to the meaning of the verb, adjective or another adjective or modify it are called adverbs. For example,
The flowers are very beautiful.
Here the word ‘very’ is adding information to the adjective ‘beautiful’.
- Try again.
- We were very kindly received.
- That is well said.
Note: Adverbs while modifying the verb appear just before the verb or at the end of the sentence (Never in the beginning of the sentence.)
Adverbs while modifying other adverbs or adjectives appear just before that adverb or adjective.
Preposition: Prepositions are words that show position of the noun.
- There is ice cream in the fridge.
- The dog jumped over the fence.
- I will finish the work at home.
Note: A picture has been added in the Appendix for your reference.
Conjunction: Words which join two words or sentences are known as conjunctions.
- Ravi and Hemant are partners.
- I will finish the work while you study.
- It was raining yet they turned up to watch the match.
Interjection: Words which express overt feelings are called interjections.
- Oh! I didn’t see you coming
- Alas! She is no more with us.
13.1. Word Formation Rules
There are a few simple rules which can help you decide what part of speech a word is, or it can also help you change the class of the word by adding or deleting something from the word.
The following are some examples with which you can identify word category:
- Nouns often end: -ment, -ion, -ness, -ity, -ation, -tion, etc.
- People nouns often end: -er, -or, -ist, -ian.
- Adjectives often end: -able, -ible, -ive, -al, -ic, -ed, -ing.
- Some verbs end: -ise, -ate, -en
- Adverbs often end: -ly.